Bladder cancer occurs when cells of the bladder grow abnormally.
- Smoking or breathing in tobacco smoke
- Genetics/family history
- Contact with chemicals used to make plastics, paints, textiles, leather and rubber
- Frequent or long-lasting bladder infections
- Cancer treatment with the drug cyclophosphamide
- Radiation therapy in the pelvic area, such as for cervical cancer or prostate cancer
- High levels of arsenic in drinking water
Your healthcare provider will conduct a physical exam. Additional tests may also be ordered for further examination.
These tests may include the following:
- Urine cytology to check the color and content of your urine and to look at body cells under a microscope
- Blood tests to gauge the kidney and liver function
- A computerized tomography scan (also known as CT or CAT scans)
- Cystoscopy, a procedure using a fiberoptic camera to view the inside of the bladder and urethra
Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) is a procedure used for accurate tumor typing, staging and grading. During this procedure, your doctor can look inside the bladder, take tumor samples and cut away the tumor.